Issues associated with condom incorporate with non-commercial lovers among sexually-active transgender ladies in Cambodia: results from a nationwide survey using respondent-driven sample

Issues associated with condom incorporate with non-commercial lovers among sexually-active transgender ladies in Cambodia: results from a nationwide survey using respondent-driven sample



Worldwide, the incidence of HIV among transgender women is much greater than regarding the overall mature inhabitants. This can be revealed by persistently low rate of constant condom usage among this population. This research is for that reason done to understand more about factors of constant condom utilize among sexually-active transgender ladies in Cambodia, specifically due to their non-commercial partners.


Data utilized for this study are compiled as part of the state built-in Biological and behavior review 2016. Players were employed through the money city of Phnom Penh and 12 some other provinces with a high burden of HIV by using the Respondent-Driven sample (RDS) method. Face-to-face interviews had been conducted making use of an organized survey. Weighted multivariate logistic regression comparison got carried out to understand more about separate aspects related to consistent condom need.


This study confirms the reduced rates of condom usage, particularly in non-commercial partnership, among transgender ladies in Cambodia. To handle these problems, efforts towards knowledge about aftereffects of several, concurrent relations, and inconsistent condom utilize should always be reinforced among transgender ladies.


Transgender people, people who self-identify as feminine despite becoming assigned as male at birth, tend to be a susceptible populace globally. They experiences a top degree of personal marginalization that brings about mental health challenges, drug abuse, and subjection to violence—all danger facets for HIV alongside sexually transmitted problems (STIs) 1,2,3,4,5,6. Because of these threat issues, obtained greater rates of HIV and STIs than cisgender people, those whose gender character corresponds with sex assigned at beginning. A 2013 global methodical analysis located the chances of HIV problems among transgender lady to be 48.8 days 95% confidence interval (CI) 21.2–76.3 higher than that during the general person society 7.

Along with the mental problems that regularly lead transgender female to take part in intimate danger behaviors, like condomless gender, they deal with escort backpage Naperville IL social judgment connected with their sex character. They usually are discriminated against whenever obtaining opportunities and opening wellness treatments 8, 9. With the lack of job opportunities, most transgender women look to gender jobs 10. The two fold stigmatization of gender personality and prostitution produces this society actually less likely to access health providers 7, 9, 10. This diminished access provides significant effects, since the threat of HIV also STIs can be greater among transgender women who were doing transactional sex 10, 11. Intercourse employees are reduced in a position to negotiate condom utilize for the reason that damaged bargaining electricity, financial uncertainty, low self-esteem, as well as other mental troubles 6, 9, 12. Caused by stigmatization, most transgender women feel economic isolation or destitution, and get needed to improve harder decision to take part in sex without a condom as an economic survival approach 5, 10, 13.

Condomless anal sex is a vital possibilities factor for HIV and STI indication 14, 15. In a 2016 HIV incidence research among transgender ladies in Cambodia, participants which reported staying away from a condom at last rectal intercourse have 3.8 instances chances of HIV illness 16. Transgender women are almost certainly going to end up being the open spouse in a sexual encounter, growing their particular danger of HIV and STIs if her rates of condomless anal sex try higher 2, 8. numerous elements have been shown to be correlated with inconsistent condom usage among males who possess intercourse with males (MSM) and transgender women globally: HIV possibility sense 17, medication and liquor utilize 4, 10, 18, 19, depressive problems 4, 9, 18, 20, 21, reputation of misuse 21,22,23, low levels of training 18, and achieving sex with a professional spouse 12, 20, 24. During these studies, condom utilize is treated as a binary varying: steady users had been individuals just who reported usually using condoms during rectal intercourse, whereas inconsistent people decided not to.

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